For Mainländer, the entirety of the cosmos is slowly but surely moving towards the silencing of the will-to-live and to (as he calls it) "redemption". Books from the group, like Adorno’s and Horkheimer’s Dialectic of Enlightenment and Adorno’s Negative Dialectics, critiqued what they saw as the failure of the Enlightenment project and the problems of modernity. The monads are "substantial forms of being" with the following properties: they are eternal, indecomposable, individual, subject to their own laws, un-interacting, and each reflecting the entire universe in a pre-established harmony (a historically important example of panpsychism). Additionally, Mainländer accentuates on the idea of salvation for all of creation. Phenomenology has had a large influence on Continental Philosophy, particularly existentialism and poststructuralism. Nationality: German Known for: Nihilism and “God is dead” statement Publications like Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil have made Nietzsche one of the more controversial philosophers. Heidegger himself is often identified as an existentialist, though he would have rejected this. His main achievement was a complete oeuvre on almost every scholarly subject of his time, displayed and unfolded according to his demonstrative-deductive, mathematical method, which perhaps represents the peak of Enlightenment rationality in Germany. Edmund Husserl founded a philosophical school called Phenomenology. However, he soon came to disavow Schopenhauer's pessimistic outlook on life and sought to provide a positive philosophy. Famous Role Models We'd Like to Meet In Person, People Who Most Deserve Biopics (But Don't Have One Yet). However, he deviates from Schopenhauer in important respects. divine predestination of some individuals to Hell), and if you don't believe in God, you give in to nihilism. List of famous Germans of philosophy features Albert Einstein, Karl Marx and more. (often referred to as the Classical or Socratic period of philosophy). To answer this question we must first define the word, “great.” It could mean the most famous — in which case the answer to the question would be simple. The following individuals have written philosophical texts in the German language. Søren Kierkegaard (a Danish philosopher) is frequently included in surveys of German (or Germanic) philosophy due to his extensive engagement with German thinkers.[1][2][3][4]. In the late 19th century, the predicate logic of Gottlob Frege (1848–1925) overthrew Aristotelian logic (the dominant logic since its inception in Ancient Greece). Distributive Justice, State and Utopia / Libertarianism Karl Popper: Epistemologist (Principles of Knowledge) and theorist of the open Society Briefly, he came to the conclusion that we could come to know an external world through experience, but that what we could know about it was limited by the limited terms in which the mind can think: if we can only comprehend things in terms of cause and effect, then we can only know causes and effects. 10 Most Interesting German Philosophers Martin Heidegger. History Of Philosophy It is very hard, if not impossible, to say who the first philosophers were or when informal philosophizing first occurred. The artistic genius can achieve this state temporarily, while only a few saints have achieved total cessation throughout history. A Short History of German Philosophy addresses the philosophical changes brought about by Luther’s Reformation, and then presents a detailed account of German philosophy from Leibniz to Kant; the rise of a new form of humanities; and the German Idealists. Leibniz is noted for his optimism - his Théodicée[5] tries to justify the apparent imperfections of the world by claiming that it is optimal among all possible worlds. It follows from this that we can know the form of all possible experience independent of all experience, but nothing else, but we can never know the world from the “standpoint of nowhere” and therefore we can never know the world in its entirety, neither via reason nor experience. Christian Wolff (1679–1754) was the most eminent German philosopher between Leibniz and Kant. Was one of … [7] August Ludwig Hülsen, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Salomon Maimon, Friedrich Schleiermacher, and Arthur Schopenhauer also made major contributions. And here the master’s claim was viewed as paradox, at best; the Prussian regime indeed provided extensive civil and social services, good universities, high employment and some industrialization, but it was ranked as rather backward politically compared with the more liberal constitutional monarchies of France and Britain. The philosophy of German idealism arose to challenge the Enlightenment’s skeptical, materialist, empiricist, and antimetaphysical worldview. Monads are the ultimate elements of the universe. The economist, social scientist and revolutionary socialist German Karl Heinrich Marx, was the founder of a company with a fair and balanced distribution of capital. If you're trying to find out the names of famous German philosophers then this list is … and "Who are the most famous philosophers from Germany?" The Young Hegelians drew on Hegel's idea that the purpose and promise of history was the total negation of everything conducive to restricting freedom and reason; and they proceeded to mount radical critiques, first of religion and then of the Prussian political system. To respond to this growing criticism, a group of philosophers greatly influenced by Schopenhauer such as Julius Bahnsen (1830–81), Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann (1842–1906), Philipp Mainländer (1841–76), and even some of his personal acquaintances developed their own brand of pessimism, each in their own unique way.[15][16]. If you're trying to find out the names of famous German philosophers then this list is the perfect resource for you. These prominent philosophers of Germany may or may not be currently alive, but what they all have in common is that they're all respected German philosophers. His work continues to have a major influence on both philosophers and artists. Top 10 Greatest Philosophers in History. Monads are centers of force; substance is force, while space, matter, and motion are merely phenomenal. As the Enlightenment was ending, Romantic philosophers argued that excessive dependence on reason was a mistake perpetuated by the Enlightenment because it disregarded the bonds of history, myth, faith, and tradition that were necessary to hold society together. [citation needed], Since the 1960s the Frankfurt School has been guided by Jürgen Habermas' (born 1929) work on communicative reason,[23][24] linguistic intersubjectivity and what Habermas calls "the philosophical discourse of modernity". Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher whose works in fields like aesthetics and metaphysics have made him an important and influential personality in Western philosophy. Hegel was the last of the great philosophical system builders … They felt Hegel's apparent belief in the end of history conflicted with other aspects of his thought and that, contrary to his later thought, the dialectic was certainly not complete; this they felt was (painfully) obvious given the irrationality of religious beliefs and the empirical lack of freedoms—especially political and religious freedoms—in existing Prussian society. Karl Marx (1818–83) often attended their meetings. Historical Figures You Most Want to Bring Back from the Dead. Like Heidegger, they worshipped the führer. Marxism became one of the major forces on twentieth century world history. The group considered themselves logical positivists because they believed all knowledge is either derived through experience or arrived at through analytic statements, and they adopted the predicate logic of Frege, as well as the early work of Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) as foundations to their work. ), Critique of the Schopenhauerian philosophy, Hermann Lotze: Thought: logic and language, "German Philosophy in the 18th Century Prior to Kant", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_philosophy&oldid=993038482, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 13:36. In an accessible narrative that explains complex ideas in clear language, Vittorio Hösle traces the evolution of German philosophy and describes its central influence on other aspects of German culture, including literature, politics, and science. Vittorio Hösle evaluates philosophers with a light touch and makes them come alive. Originally hermeneutics referred to the interpretation of texts, especially religious texts. Phenomenology began at the start of the 20th century with the descriptive psychology of Franz Brentano (1838–1917), and then the transcendental phenomenology of Edmund Husserl (1859–1938). Philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reason, mind, language and traditions. Phenomenology is the study of... Karl Marx. In continental philosophy: German idealism and the defense of reason. List of notable or famous philosophers from Germany, with bios and photos, including the top philosophers born in Germany and even some popular philosophers who immigrated to Germany. Behind Einstein's Disastrous First Marriage To Physicist Mileva Marić, Oddball Facts About Albert Einstein's Eccentricity. There are, of course, many more. This also leads Mainländer to the philosophical position of pluralism. It developed out of the work of Immanuel Kant in the 1780s and 1790s, and was closely linked both with Romanticism and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment. While some of the seminal philosophers of twentieth-century analytical philosophy were German-speakers, most German-language philosophy of the twentieth century tends to be defined not as analytical but 'continental' philosophy – as befits Germany's position as part of the European 'continent' as opposed to the British Isles or other culturally European nations outside of Europe. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) was both a philosopher and a mathematician who wrote primarily in Latin and French. Many are categorized as German philosophers or Austrian philosophers, but some are neither German nor Austrian by ethnicity or nationality. Hans Heyse, for example, advocated total obedience: “The new German university has only one law… to serve the intentions and objectives of the führer of the German people.” It made early use of terms such as epistemology and upheld its prominence over ontology. In the early part of the 20th century, a group of German and Austrian philosophers and scientists formed the Vienna Circle to promote scientific thought over Hegelian system-building, which they saw as a bad influence on intellectual thought. [14] Nevertheless, it was viewed with disdain by the other popular philosophies at the time, such as Hegelianism, materialism, neo-Kantianism and the emerging positivism. The neo-Kantian schools tended to emphasize scientific readings of Kant, often downplaying the role of intuition in favour of concepts. Leibniz is also known for his theory of monads, as exposited in Monadologie. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher who developed a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis. Philosophy really took off, though, with Socrates and Plato in the 5th - 4th Century B.C. German Philosophers List Kant and the Sublime. Kelly Parker, Krzysztof Skowronski (eds. Kant defines sublime as that is beyond... Sigmund Freud’s Theorie. He was influenced by Eastern philosophy, particularly Buddhism, and was known for his pessimism. He was also known... Edmund Husserl. Wolff was one of the first to use German as a language of scholarly instruction and research, although he also wrote in Latin, so that an international audience could, and did, read him. His analysis of will led him to the conclusion that emotional, physical, and sexual desires can never be fulfilled. One of the more modern philosophers, Immanuel Kant was a German born thinker. The Tortured, Fascinating Life of Friedrich Nietzsche. Keynote Speakers Katherine Goodman (Brown University) and Karen Green (University of Melbourne) Thursday, 4 October 16:00 Welcome to the Center HWPS 16:30 Opening Lecture… Age Of Enlightenment Philosophers. The term 'Right Hegelian', for example, was never actually used by those to whom it was later ascribed, namely, Hegel's direct successors at the Fredrick William University (now the Humboldt University of Berlin). German Women Intellectuals 1700-1830. Neo-Kantianism refers broadly to a revived type of philosophy along the lines of that laid down by Immanuel Kant in the 18th century, or more specifically by Schopenhauer's criticism of the Kantian philosophy in his work The World as Will and Representation, as well as by other post-Kantian philosophers such as Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773–1843) and Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841). German idealist philosophers sought thereby to restore reason to its former preeminence and grandeur as the universal tool through which human understanding of reality is possible. [19] In the 19th century, Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), Wilhelm Dilthey (1833–1911) and others expanded the discipline of hermeneutics beyond mere exegesis and turned it into a general humanistic discipline. It is important to note that the groups were not as unified or as self-conscious as the labels 'right' and 'left' make them appear. His book, The Critique of Pure Reason, published in 1781, is one of the foremost works in Philosophy. This book provides a window into the German tradition that will interest not only philosophers but also students and scholars in a wide range of other fields, including intellectual history, German studies, and religion and theology." (The term was first used by David Strauss to describe Bruno Bauer—who actually was a typically 'Left', or Young, Hegelian. He transformed the three into an essential work of economics called Das Kapital, which consisted of a critical economic examination of capitalism. The most prominent German idealists in the movement, besides Kant, were Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854) and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel(1770–1831) who was the predomina… The page invites you to explore German philosophical trends and thinkers, get acquainted with the main ideas of outstanding German philosophers of the past like … This historic philosophers from Germany list can help answer the questions "Who are some German philosophers of note?" The term “philosophy” derives from the Greek word philosophia which translates to a “love of wisdom,” coined by pre-Socratic thinkers such as Pythagoras in the 6th century B.C. Expelled by the Nazis, the school reformed again in Frankfurt after World War II. This is a list of German-language philosophers. Among those influenced by Hegel immediately after his death in 1831 two distinct groups can be roughly divided into the politically and religiously radical 'left', or 'young', Hegelians and the more conservative 'right', or 'old', Hegelians. history of German mathematics, which obviously exists only as a dependent part of world mathematics. Working in the metaphysical framework of Schopenhauer, Philipp Mainländer sees the "will" as the innermost core of being, the ontological arche. To be sure, almost the whole of German phi-losophy in … He was born on May 5, 1818, and studied philosophy, law and history at the Universities of Bonn and Berlin. In effect, apparent flaws that can be identified in this world must exist in every possible world, because otherwise God would have chosen to create the world that excluded those flaws. This concise but comprehensive book provides an original history of German-language philosophy from the Middle Ages to today. Postmodernists consider the Frankfurt school to be one of their precursors. Two eminent French philosophers discuss German philosophy—including the legacy of Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Adorno, Fichte, Marx, and Heidegger—from a French perspective. German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers. With Schopenhauer, the silencing of the will is a rare event. Philosophers within the camp of the Hegelian right include: Other thinkers or historians who may be included among the Hegelian right, with some reservations, include: Speculative theism was an 1830s movement closely related to but distinguished from Right Hegelianism. Summary: This category concerns German philosophy in the 17th and 18th century. Some of his most famous ideas include the hierarchy of pleasures in Utilitarianism, liberalism, … What we observe as will is all there is to observe, nothing more. His problem, then, was how to live a positive life considering that if you believe in God, you give in to dishonesty and cruel beliefs (e.g. Hermeneutics is the philosophical theory and practice of interpretation and understanding. The German idealists’ interest in aesthetics distinguishes them from other modern systematic philosophers (Descartes, Leibniz, Wolff ) for whom aesthetics was a matter of secondary concern at best. FlameHorse. Martin Heidegger's Being and Time fundamentally transformed the discipline. Notable neo-Kantian philosophers include; Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) was initially a proponent of Schopenhauer. Kant was the world famous German philosopher who thought about the origin of knowledge. The main crux of Nietzsche’s work was the idea of life-affirmation, but he also presented ideas such as Will to power, perspectivism, master-slave morality , and the Apollonian/Dionysian dichotomy. In an age of upcoming revolutions and exciting new discoveries in science, the resigned and a-progressive nature of the typical pessimist was seen as detriment to social development. The Young Hegelians who were unpopular because of their radical views on religion and society. Martin Heidegger is known for his unnecessarily complex use of theatrical language. His some theorems earned many enemies. German Philosophers List of famous German philosophers with their biographies that include trivia, interesting facts, timeline and life history. He developed an interest in Hegelianism, French socialism and British economic theory. Consequently, he eloquently described a lifestyle of negating desires, similar to the ascetic teachings of Vedanta and the Desert Fathers of early Christianity. It must be the best possible and most balanced world, because it was created by an all powerful and all knowing God, who would not choose to create an imperfect world if a better world could be known to him or possible to exist. In the 20th century, hermeneutics took an 'ontological turn'. The work of Leibniz also anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy also looks back to the scholastic tradition, in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or a priori definitions rather than to empirical evidence. It was then transformed by Martin Heidegger (1889–1976), whose famous book Being and Time (1927) applied phenomenology to ontology, and who, along with Ludwig Wittgenstein, is considered one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century. His views continue to influence contemporary philosophy. The sublime is at the heart of Kant’s aesthetic philosophy. It developed out of the work of Immanuel Kant in the 1780s and 1790s,[6] and was closely linked both with Romanticism and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment. They rejected anti-utopian aspects of his thought that "Old Hegelians" have interpreted to mean that the world has already essentially reached perfection. This is yet another respect in which he differentiates his philosophy from that of Schopenhauer. ), An idiosyncratic opponent of German idealism, particularly Hegel's thought, was Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 –1860). They included Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–72), David Strauss (1808–74), Bruno Bauer (1809–82) and Max Stirner (1806–56) among their ranks. Nozick: American philosopher, related to libertarianism. However, the ethical aspects of neo-Kantian thought often drew them within the orbit of socialism, and they had an important influence on Austromarxism and the revisionism of Eduard Bernstein. Here are ten black philosophers I will be including in next year’s course. This list examines the influence, depth of insight and wide-reaching interest across many subjects of various “lovers of wisdom,” and ranks them accordingly. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (, German: [ˈɡeːɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡl̩]; August 27,... Jürgen Habermas (UK: , US: ; German: [ˈjʏɐ̯ɡn̩ ˈhaːbɐmaːs]; born 18 June 1929) is a German... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (German: [ˈɔsvalt ˈʃpɛŋlɐ]; 29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a... Johann Adam Weishaupt ([ˈjoːhan ˈaːdam ˈvaɪ̯s.haʊ̯pt], 6 February 1748 – 18 November 1830) was... Albertus Magnus, (before 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (; German: [ˈɡɔtloːp ˈfreːɡə]; 8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925)... Johanna "Hannah" Cohn Arendt (, also US: , German: [ˈaːʁənt]; 14 October 1906 – 4 December... Every Person Who Has Been Immortalized in a Google Doodle. The most prominent German idealists in the movement, besides Kant, were Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854) and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) who was the predominant figure in nineteenth century German philosophy, and the proponents of Jena Romanticism; Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843), Novalis (1772–1801), and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829). His Eternal Return theory stated that the universe recurs and will continue to recur in a similar form an infinite number of times. Monads are to the metaphysical realm what atoms are to the physical/phenomenal. In 1781, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) published his Critique of Pure Reason, in which he attempted to determine what we can and cannot know through the use of reason independent of all experience. By 1933 (after the rise of Nazism), the various neo-Kantian circles in Germany had dispersed.[17]. With Schopenhauer the will is singular, unified and beyond time and space. He believed this task to be urgent, as he believed a form of nihilism caused by modernity was spreading across Europe, which he summed up in the phrase "God is dead". In this book, Alain Badiou and Jean-Luc Nancy, the two most important living philosophers in France, discuss German philosophy from a French perspective. [9] Its proponents (Immanuel Hermann Fichte (1796–1879), Christian Hermann Weisse (1801–1866), and Hermann Ulrici (1806–1884)[10] were united in their demand to recover the "personal God" after panlogist Hegelianism. A founding father of, among other fields, economics and public administration as academic disciplines, he concentrated especially in these fields, giving advice on practical matters to people in government, and stressing the professional nature of university education. [citation needed] They can also be compared to the corpuscles of the Mechanical Philosophy of René Descartes and others. He argued that the human mind created the structure of a person’s … Enjoying their promotions, Hitler’s philosophers went on to help establish the framework for a Nazi ‘philosophy’. This was the beginning of analytic philosophy. In the late 18th and early 19th century, one direct line of influence from Kant is German Idealism. Furthermore, via introspection we can only observe our individual will. Kant's thoughts were sceptic and rationalist at the same time. The neo-Kantian school was of importance in devising a division of philosophy that has had durable influence well beyond Germany. Hegel was hugely influential throughout the nineteenth century; by its end, according to Bertrand Russell, "the leading academic philosophers, both in America and Britain, were largely Hegelian". Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th century advocates of rationalism. These philosophers are among the most prominent in their field, and information about each well-known philosopher from Germany is included when available. [20] Schleiermacher wondered whether there could be a hermeneutics that was not a collection of pieces of ad hoc advice for the solution of specific problems with text interpretation but rather a "general hermeneutics," which dealt with the "art of understanding" as such, which pertained to the structure and function of understanding wherever it occurs. In 1923, Carl Grünberg founded the Institute for Social Research, drawing from Marxism, Freud's psychoanalysis and Weberian philosophy, which came to be known as the "Frankfurt School". Wittgenstein did not agree with their interpretation of his philosophy. Although they drew from Marxism, they were outspoken opponents of Stalinism. He believed he found his solution in the concepts of the Übermensch and Eternal Recurrence. John Stuart Mill is one of the most important philosophers in the history of liberalism, and was considered one of the most important philosophers of the 19 th century. [22] The Heideggerian conception of hermeneutics was further developed by Heidegger's pupil Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900–2002), in his book Truth and Method. Though predating the period of "classical German philosophy", this is an enormously important period in the history of German thought, and one which saw the publication of the first philosophical texts in the German language. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and his ideas covered a lot ground and as a result, people began to raise questions they normally would not. Behind Einstein's Disastrous First Marriage To Physicist Mileva MarićOddball Facts About Albert Einstein's Eccentricity, The Best Karl Marx Quotes#79 of 98 Historical Figures You Most Want to Bring Back from the Dead, The Tortured, Fascinating Life of Friedrich NietzscheThe Best Friedrich Nietzsche Quotes, The Best Johann Christoph Friedrich Von Schiller Quotes#55 of 1,172 The Best Writers of All Time, #97 of 403 Famous Role Models We'd Like to Meet In Person#36 of 117 People Who Most Deserve Biopics (But Don't Have One Yet), #796 of 1,357 The Greatest Minds of All Time#9 of 26 Famous Celebrities Born With Cleft Lips, #65 of 233 The Best Female Authors of All Time#616 of 1,276 Every Person Who Has Been Immortalized in a Google Doodle, Birthplace: Saxony-Anhalt, Eurasia, Burg bei Magdeburg, Germany. Since the publication of his Critique, Immanuel Kant has been considered one of the greatest influences in all of western philosophy. Schopenhauer's transcendental idealism leads him to conclude that we only have access to a certain aspect of the thing-in-itself by introspective observation of our own bodies. [13], During the endtimes of Schopenhauer's life and subsequent years after his death, post-Schopenhauerian pessimism became a rather popular "trend" in 19th century Germany. German idealism was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Here he meant that reason and freedom had reached their maximums as they were embodied by the existing Prussian state. Each one, however, satisfies at least one of the following criteria: Later in the 19th century, Dilthey began to see possibilities for continuing Schleiermacher's general hermeneutics project as a "general methodology of the humanities and social sciences".[21]. The Best Johann Christoph Friedrich Von Schiller Quotes. [25], Specialty in philosophy, focussed to German language origin, Frege, Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle, Rutherford (1998) is a detailed scholarly study of Leibniz's. Kant has had a major influence on prominent philosophers like Hegel, Schelling, Reinhold, and Fichte. Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling(1775-1854). No longer was it conceived of as being about understanding linguistic communication, or providing a methodological basis for the human sciences - as far as Heidegger was concerned, hermeneutics is ontology, dealing with the most fundamental conditions of man's being in the world. A proponent of Schopenhauer prominence over ontology Hösle evaluates philosophers with a light touch and makes them come alive famous! Is all there is to observe, nothing more took an 'ontological turn ' history of German-language philosophy from of... 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