There are numerous computer applications that focus on performance comparison of input devices and human speed-accuracy tradeoff. The Glossary of Human Computer Interaction. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> 2 Of interest to HCI researchers is that the law applies to pointing and dragging using a mouse, trackball, stylus, joystick, and touchscreen. Difficulty in Application 7.2. CHI EA … Fitts’s Law - Modeling Target Movement Time in HCI. A represents the amplitude, which is the distance of the center of the target from the starting location and W is the target width which is shown in Figure 2. The latter two tasks were more demanding in terms of the endpoint difficulties, and resulted higher constant values for the regression coefficient for similar values of indices of performances. It can be used in assisting interface designs (the invention of pop-up menus) and in interface evaluation (e.g., “embedded model” in [13]). In the Fitts’ Law description of pointing, the parameters of interest are: a. Fitts’ Law gives us a way to compare tasks, limbs and devices both in manual as well as in computer pointing. 4 0 obj The user selects a tool by clicking on one of the icons in the palette. Check out Kevin Hales’ visual summary of Fitts’ Law right here.. Fitts (1954) Original Experiments 5.2. And it's been used as a logical basis for modelling more complex HCI tasks. With this analogy, he derived the following equation, which is now known as Fitts’ Law: here, MT represents the movement time to hit the target, a and b are empirically determined constants. As a result of this, I’m going to dig a little deeper into a famous HCI-concept and see if our, for the moment final design , could be improved even more. With the advent of new smaller technological devices, small screens, and highly loaded user interfaces, Fitts’ Law again becomes an important tool to measure what is better what is not, in terms of interface design. Later researchers suggested the same. ���#���L,�ti���j?�x���i)�%ߗ�&r^C�0Z���A.����5W�/ԃ�gB�����\���0� ���ŭy��V5]\�Myqf��C5��oг)?���M��gk�O������)ͷ�R��+�������~�[��2é$�N���{���ir�P�x����*. Concepts The key formula of Fitts’s Law is: Mt = a + b log2(D/S + 1) The bigger an object and the closer it is to us, the easier it is to move to. The separation between the targets (termed A, for movement amplitude) and the width of the targets (termed W, for target width) could be varied in dif­fer­ent combinations (see figure 6.1). How does Fitts' Law change for different physical selection devices, such as a 3-button mouse, a touchpad, or a pen/stylus? Howe ver , it is obvious that Fitts’ law addresses only one Not only does the brain need to know where the expected location of the pointer will be after one hand-eye cycle, but also, to avoid overshoot, how accurate that estimate is. Fitts's law (often cited as Fitt's law) is a predictive model of human movement primarily used in human–computer interaction and ergonomics. • Fitts’ law as a human performance measure • Fitts’ law as a predictive model. Fitts’ original data was later reviewed by many researchers (Fitts 1964), (Sheridan 1979), (Welford 1986), (MacKenzie 1992) and different opinions criticized the validity of the Fitts model. %��������� Repositioning the cursor has been suggested for this reason, however, it must be done carefully without causing user to lose locus of control. Join 238,121 designers and get In addition to the index of difficulty, Fitts also defined a measure for the performance, named “Index of Performance” (IP) which is as follows: Index of performance is measured in bits per second (bits/sec), similar to the performance indices of the electronic communication devices (e.g. (Volume 61 ,  Issue 6 ,  2004, ISSN:1071-5819 , Academic Press). the science” of human-computer interaction (HCI) [23], researchers sought quantitative models of human action to explain behavior and inform design. The problem becomes more severe as user clicks via low performer input devices such as trackpads. Fitts's law is used to model the act of pointing, either by physically touching an object with a hand or finger, or virtually, by pointing to an object on a computer monitor using a pointing device. A search of the current human-computer interaction (HCI) literature, however, will reveal that the Hick-Hyman Law failed to gain momentum in the field of HCI, whereas Fitts' Law received, and continues to receive, substantial attention. Okay, why has Fitts' Law been so influential? Fitts claimed that under ideal circumstances the term a in Equation 2 would be zero, therefore the index of performance (IP) can be simply taken as ID/MT from Equation 2. Another prevalent use of Fitts’ Law is to help study and compare input devices. Fitts defined the term Index of Difficulty (ID, shown in Figure 3), as a measure of the task difficulty as follows: Mackenzie (MacKenzie 1992), suggested a more stable model for the Fitts Law, which works better -also more like the Shannon’s original formula- for the small values of ID as follows:              (2a)  (3a)             Index of difficulty is measured in terms of "bits", which comes from the analogy with Shannon's information theorem. Fitts’ law for mobile applications The core of the iterative design process is to continuously keep on iterating, maybe even more when you think you’re close to your fulfill goals . It is a speed accuracy trade-off. Figure 2. For his reciprocal tapping task, he obtained an ID value of about 10bits/sec. (You'll need to do some research for this.) One online example of such can be found at http://www.tele-actor.net/fitts/ where performance of participants are plotted after the experiment and compared against visitors hall of fame list. . Fitts’ law is widely applied in user experience (UX) and user interface (UI) design. INTEGRATION OF THE LAWS 7. They were not targeted to HCI field because there was no GUI. Pointing and Fitts’s Law [20 Points] (a) [12 Points] The window shown to the left is the movable tool palette for selecting drawing tools in Adobe Photoshop. It does not provide information without conducting an experiment. Research and Applications Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff Psychometrics HCI Applications 6. He indicated that the effect of the target width and the target distance is not proportional and his model yields a better correlation coefficient (Welford 1968). The physical configuration is termed the Fitts paradigm, and appears in Figure 1. Check our frequently asked questions. Complexity of Stimuli 7.3. (�52�] �X8A����j��w��s��L�{��ǧ׻���2r�wn>{uB��=3�n�,3��|�����o�+?�l���Q�R�����L�"g�o*��a�&a� *�X��.~�p&~h�[���>��ՐX�9�RX��揞��p��g܊�WMWq���"��~w����Pw_��.Ji�.|s7� For example, increased screen density (DPI) due to higher resolution graphics cards usually result in smaller menu buttons on identical monitors. What is Fitts’ Law? Another Fitts’ Law application which is organized as a game is “Fittsbits”, and can be reached at: http://www.rodo.nl/fittsbits/index.php?page=home. Fitts’ law (1954) 1 describes the relationship between movement time, distance, and accuracy for people engaged in rapid aimed movements. This is why (and usually not stated) Fitts' Law depends on 'over learnt' behaviour, that is use of a device that is so practised that the user has attained peak performance. or through our Introduction. Because of this, Fitts’ law has become a staple in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), and has become one of the most accepted guidelines in the industry. Fitts' popular model has been widely adopted in numerous research areas, including kinematics, human factors, and (recently) human-computer interaction (HCI). A reasonable chapter in HCI … x�Z�n�}��[Z��n����Y#�H` k?�KJb�h-k���yͷ��Sd�����C�8d�.�.,�O���Z3���[���|�`^���[�u�����u����̖�q��vr��q On the other hand, we also have to state that, Fitts’ Law does not provide any prediction of the performance of a limb or device. weekly inspiration and design tips in your inbox. Other researchers repeated similar experiments and found that Fitts’ Law holds for discrete tasks as well. Using bigger LCD monitors does not improve the condition: Although the target size returns to normal, users are expected to travel longer distances on screen (Not only with input device but also with their eyes). Welford, suggested a better model by separating A and W into two terms. This scientific law predicts that the time required to rapidly move to a target area is a function of the ratio between the distance to the target and the width of the target. The key factor is, to reduce required travel distance from one location to another as user navigates through the interface and maintaining a proper size affordance for clicking. J. … It does not provide information without conducting … (Note that the definition of movement time has no strong specification for the boundary conditions). Fitts’ law states that the amount of time required for a person to move a pointer (e.g., mouse cursor) to a target area is a function of the distance to the target divided by the size of the target. Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts’ law research in HCI. Since originally published in 1954, Fitts’ law (Eq. Applicability to HCI and Discussions Fitts’ Law is an intensively used theory in Human-Computer Interaction. The name of the famous researcher is Paul Fitts, so one should be careful on spelling. called Fitts’ law was also well studied, and along with its variations. Fitts claimed that the distance (A) can be thought as signal power, the width of the target (W) can be thought as the allowable noise. However, later by other researchers, the constant a is proven to be a significant factor emphasizing the need for a more detailed analysis. This is a lecture specifically addressing the HCI (Human Computer Interaction) community. HCI Applications 5. For human-computer interaction (HCI) design, Fitts' law provides a practical method for comparing the performance of two pointing devices during identical targeting-type tasks, specifically the point-and-click operation (Douglas, Kirkpatrick, & MacKenzie, 1999). Fitts's Law describes how long it takes a user to hit a target in a graphical user interface (GUI) or other design, as a function of size and distance. The other type, “discrete tasks”, on the other hand, are tasks where the subject is instructed to stop after one movement and the time is measured between the start and the end-points. Theoretical Developments 5.3. Paul Fitts extended Woodworth's research which focused on telegraph operator performance substantially with his famous reciprocal tapping task to define the well-referenced Fitts’ Law  (Fitts 1954). Fitts had subjects move a stylus alternately back and forth between two separate target regions, tapping one or the other target at the end of each movement. THEORY. !����W:����/� �G"f{!cnD�rQ�掴 蛭#�[oh�X@xR����u�� ��!3�;�� /��ʒ#��[{Uj_��"��$�_����;!�����y�+l\���,@��. While studying Human Computer Interaction (HCI), it’s almost impossible to miss the work of Paul Fitts and his contribution known as Fitts’ Law. The realization of movement in Fitts' model is analogous to the transmission of information. Reorganization of navigational elements, menus, buttons so that frequently used elements are placed closer to neutral cursor position is helpful to increase performance. Applying Fitt’s Law would probably result in slightly higher difficulty to reach the target than if the pedals were at the right place. 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fitts' law hci

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