Eager to protect incursions into the eastern end of their fabulously profitable Dutch East Indies Empire (modern-day Indonesia), the Dutch East Indies Company claimed sovereignty over unexplored New Guinea in 1660. In 1885 Germany annexed the northern coast 'New Guinea' and Britain annexed the southern regions 'Papua'. Papua New Guinea’s magnificent and varied scenery reflects a generally recent geologic history in which movements of the Earth ’s crust resulted in the collision of the northward-moving Australian Plate with the westward-moving Pacific Plate. Evidence of early New Guinea coastal settlements includes 40,000-year-old stone axes found in Morobe Province. In 1526 the first European Jorge de Meneses sighted the mainland and named it Ilhas dos Papuas, land of frizzy haired people. The expat population grew from about 6000 to more than 50,000 in 1971. A year later, Papua and New Guinea were combined in an administrative union, which was confirmed by the Papua and New Guinea Act to make it as the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. The power struggle continues. After 400 years of coastal contact, some of those white men finally made it into the interior. By the mid-16th century, sweet potatoes were being taken from South America into southeast Asia by the Portuguese and Spanish, and Malay traders brought them to the western part of the New Guinea island. 1963–69  The Dutch pull out of western New Guinea, transferring control to Indonesia subject to a UN-administered plebiscite – the sham ‘Act of Free Choice’ legitimises brutality towards independence-seeking Papuans. As surprising as it is, history tends to work this way. Francis Ona, leader of the BRA and staunch opponent of the BPA, died of malaria barely a month later on 24 July 2005. Sudden changes, where the world seems to be tipped upside down, happen more often than we think. Law and order became a more serious issue in the 1990s, when mineral-rich PNG began to develop large-scale mining operations. 1768  Louis-Antoine de Bougainville sails through the Solomon Islands and names Bougainville after himself; Choiseul after French diplomat Étienne-François duc de Choiseul; and Buka after an Islander word. The Governor-General is elected directly by Members of the National Parliament and performs mainly ceremonial func… And so it remained for more than a century. From the 1980s onward, developers exploited Papua New Guinea’s huge gold and copper deposits. US soldiers – many of them black – treated locals as equals and shared food with them. Masses of abandoned war equipment were put to use in developing New Guinea. 1906  British New Guinea becomes the Territory of Papua and its administration is taken over by newly independent Australia. 1998  On 17 July, a 10m tsunami hits the coastal region west of Aitape in Sandaun Province, killing more than 2200 people and causing injuries to another 1000. There were violent and unpredictable attacks on foreigners, and several savage massacres. 1930  The Leahy brothers walk into and ‘discover’ the Highlands – and about one million people living completely unaware of the outside world. Larry first arrived. Welcome in Papua New Guinea. Coastal people built canoes, and feasting and dancing were regular activities. PAPUA NEW GUINEA’S EARLY HISTORY Our ancient inhabitants are believed to have arrived in Papua New Guinea about 50-60,000 years ago from Southeast Asia during an Ice Age period when the sea was lower and distances between islands was shorter. The British East India Company explored parts of western New Guinea in 1793 and even made a tentative claim on the island but in 1824 Britain and the Netherlands agreed the latter’s colonial claim to the western half of the New Guinea island should stand (and it did until 1963). A History of Papua New Guinea and its Neighbours is the first term's work of the Grade 9 Provincial High School Social Science Course. The Japanese refused to surrender. After 1945, the renamed Papua New Guine… The discovery of large deposits of gold at Edie Creek and the Bulolo Valley in the 1920s brought men and wealth to the north coast. Etymology. 1942  The invading Japanese establish a base in Rabaul in January, by April they’ve taken most of New Guinea and the Solomons and by September they’ve begun their retreat along the Kokoda Track. The eastern half of New Guinea was first explored by Spanish and Portuguese explorers in the 16th century. Sandalwood and bêche-de-mer (sea cucumber) traders brought iron and steel tools, calico and fish hooks, but ultimately it was treachery and resentment that they left. Sir Michael Somare retained power for a third term as prime minister of PNG, promising electoral reform. A large part of your life has revolved around plantations and the culture that accompanies them in several interesting places, including Papua New Guinea and India. The proliferation of weapons in the No-Go Zone remains serious. The following decade, expeditions to the interior led to the jaw-dropping discovery of more than a million Highlanders living unknown to the outside world. The 1980s and ’90s saw PNG face a series of challenges: a volcanic eruption in 1994 buried much of Rabaul; ongoing border problems involving the Organisasi Papua Merdeka (Free West Papua Movement) strained relations with Indonesia and saw thousands moved to refugee camps in PNG; and a growing level of corruption and government misspending sucked money away from where it was needed most – education and health. The U.S. He fled to Bougainville in 2005 where he feted Francis Ona, proclaiming him King of Papala and then assumed this bogus title himself when Ona died. This video is a general presentation of PNG, in all its diversity and wealth. The last isolated atolls remain unsettled for another 2000 years. Larry during his first night in Papua New Guinea, and a number of years ago, a powerful tsunami struck the coastal area several hundred miles northwest of Madang. Germany occupied parts of Papua New Guinea in 1884 and ruled over the region for a few decades. In 1870, Russian anthropologist Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai wrote a treatise on the life of the inhabitants after he had made expeditions to the island and lived with some of the native tribes for many years. In September 1884, when the British announced that they intended to claim part of New Guinea, the Germans quickly raised the flag on the north coast. Musingku hired eight Fijian mercenaries as bodyguards and to train his private army, offering them US$1 million each. ‘Grand Chief’ Sir Michael Somare, PNG’s ‘father of independence’, returned in 2002 for a third stint as prime minister and introduced electoral reforms to create a more stable political climate, and in turn to help the economy. Upon its invasion by Japan during the Pacific War in 1941, the country’s civil administration was suspended but was restored upon Japan’s surrender to United States forces in 1945. The islands quickly became notorious as the most dangerous place in the Pacific, inhabited by head-hunters and cannibals. When Mick Leahy ventured inland in 1930 he was looking for gold. In 1964 a House of Assembly with 64 members was formed. There are no longer headhunters in the Highlands, the mountainous region west of Madang. Progressive Sir Hubert Murray is governor from 1907 until 1940. People lived in small villages on well-established tribal lands practising shifting cultivation, fishing and hunting. Graphium weiskei goodenovii Rothschild, 1915 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) has been known for over a century only from two male specimens: one in the Natural History Museum, London; the other in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History (OUMNH). German interest in New Guinea’s northeast coast finally spurred Great Britain to get serious about its own colonial ambitions. However, the war’s main impact proved to be social and political. Papua New Guinea also belongs to the Pacific Islands Forum, of which the United States is a Dialogue Partner. The first humans in the area arrived from Asia some 60,000 years ago, settling the coasts and lower elevations of the Highlands. A Brief History European sea captains and navigators were the first travellers to record their meetings with the people of Papua New Guinea. The Bougainville war drained resources and divided PNG along tribal lines for years, it also strained relations with the Solomons. The Germans eventually decamped to New Britain, where German-initiated plantations still operate today. Around this time steel axe-heads were traded into the Highlands from the coast. A series of British ‘claims’ followed, which were repudiated each time by Queen Victoria’s government. A compromise was reached – an arbitrary line was drawn east–west through the ‘uninhabited’ Highlands between German and British New Guinea. People have inhabited the area for thousands of years and even today the country has over 850 different languages and cultures. By the late 1860s the sandalwood had been exhausted and resentment toward Europeans led to the murder of several missionaries. 1876  Italian adventurer Luigi d’Albertis charts the Fly River in a tiny steamer, the Neva, taking eight weeks to travel 930km upriver and using fireworks to scare off menacing-looking locals. People worshipped ancestors, not gods. In an age of aeroplanes, radio and international telecommunications, the discovery was stunning. Spanish and Portuguese explorers came to know of the existence of the New Guinea island as early as the 16th century. The area around Tuno in the No-Go Zone is also where Noah Musingku maintains his own fiefdom. Papua New Guinea A Century of Colonial Impact, 1884-1984, Sione LДЃtЕ«kefu, 1989, Great Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from the Portuguese word Guiné. An influx of expatriates to Papua and New Guinea, mainly Australians, fuelled rapid economic growth. However, Japanese successes in New Guinea were short-lived. The discovery of gold brought a rush of settlers to the north coast in the 1920s. European diseases were devastating in New Guinea, and the guns the traders brought resulted in an explosion of warfare and head-hunting. Colonialism wasn’t popular in the 1950s and ’60s and Australia was urged to prepare Papua and New Guinea for independence. The dawn of the Lutheran Christian Faith in Papua New Guinea came on July 12 1886 through Johann Flierl when he sailed into the quiet beaches of Simbang, Finschhafen. New Guinea was now divided into three sections: a Dutch half protecting the eastern edge of the Dutch East Indies; a British quarter to keep the Germans (and everybody else) away from Australia; and a German quarter that would ultimately become a highly profitable outpost of German plantation agriculture. 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