Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica [L.] Beauv.) Kew-Ta Cheng, Chang-Hung Chou, 1997. Kostermans AJGH, Wirjahardja S, Dekker RJ, 1987. Four species belonging to three families were identified (Table 1):Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae),Oreochromis niloticus andTilapia cameronensis (Cichlidae), andParachanna obscura (Channidae). The habitats of I. cylindrica vary from dry sand dunes of shores and deserts to swamps and river margins. Lepidoptera News, No.2:23; 9 ref. Noteworthy collections-South Carolina. Weed Technology. Over time, it has become more controversial. Lum AF, Chikoye D, Adesiyan SO, 2005. Whilst I. cylindrica is an Old World species, with the exception of occurrences in Chile, Colombia and USA, I. brasiliensis Trin. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Grasses of Malaya. For instance, existing legal texts on land tenure in Cameroon explicitly refer to the issue of customary interests of local people but these references come with strict limitations. Old weed in a new home-that’s cogongrass. 18:23 pp. Wu JY, Teng WJ, Wang QH, Sun ZY, 2006. MINEP also develops sectoral master plans for environmental protection. USGS, 1999. With pressing, dense stands of I. cylindrica can have regrowth decreased by 40-80%. Grass pressing (i.e. South African Journal of Botany. Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Agricultural Bureaux. Bracharia plantaginea, Imperata Cylindrica, and Panicum maximum, three grasses (Poacea) new to Lousiana, and a range extension for Rottboellia cochinchinensis. Total number of trees to be planted: 8,700,000. The culms (above-ground stems) are short, erect and arise from rhizomes (underground stems). http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/rreport.htm#invasive. Sections 5, 7, 9 and 12 state that the person in charge of such establishments must carry out a risk study before initiating such an establishment. Weed flora distribution in sugar cane Saccharum officinarum L. fields at Esna, Quena. The tool includes information about main product categories sourced from these countries and legality and governance concerns, and provides a risk rating and recommendations for due diligence steps. major. For titles allocated by tender, the process is subject to the rules of transparency: the zones for logging operations are identified, a tender is called, the technical and financial offers are considered and the forest concessions are allocated to the highest bidder. Dehra Dun, India: R. P. S. Galot, International Book Distributors. africana (Santiago, 1980). and torpedo grass (Panicum repens L.). The Grasses of Bhutan. Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Eragrostis betsileensis and Tristachya betsileensis are the two species known to be local endemics. To guarantee the effective implementation of this Convention, and in pursuance of the relevant provisions of its Articles 8 and 9, Cameroon adopted the three legislations below. legality verification and tracking systems. NPFEs are forested lands subject to other uses. 94/01 of January 20, 1994 on the forests, wildlife and fisheries. Today, Cameroon’s legal timber production has reached approximately 2 million m3 and, as a result, Cameroon has become the leading exporter of timber products in Africa. Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. There are five extant species of rhinos in the world today, two in the African continent and three ... Africa. Imperata cylindrica. Read the Illegal Logging Portal Article: Spy satellite will monitor illegal logging across six African countries. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Spikelets numerous, 3.5-5.0 mm long, each surrounded by a basal ring of silky hairs 10 mm long. Chaudhary SA, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Townson (1991) reviewed methods of utilizing I. cylindrica which include grazing, paper-making, soil and moisture conservation, packing materials, brush-making, rope-making, fuel, sugar and alcohol production and a range of medicinal purposes. http://msucares.com/pubs/misc/m1194.html. Clayton WD, Renvoize SA, 1982. I. cylindrica was reportedly introduced into Oregon through ballast in 1971 but there are no recent accounts of its establishment in the north-west USA. Weeds of the United States and their control. Weeds of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Kaczor B, 2003. Coconut is also affected as indicated by a 54% yield increase following the use of glyphosate for I. cylindrica control (Samarajeewa et al., 2004). Circular SS-AGR-52. RAS/83/001, Field Document 11. in West African agriculture. Mature buds closest to the apex are the first to sprout when the rhizome is fragmented from the parent plant. A typical high-volume application involves spraying glyphosate in 250-800 l/ha of water using knapsack or tractor-mounted equipment. Antifungal activity of allelopathic plant extracts II: In vitro control of Fusarium moniliforme and F. oxysporum by aqueous extracts of four allelopathic grasses. Botany section. The management plan includes (i) dividing the FMU into conservation areas where activities are banned, agroforestry zones and actual timber production zones; (ii) splitting the FMU into 30 annual sub-areas (assiettes annuelles de coupe or AAC), each of which will be logged in a year; and (iii) establishing minimum diameters for species to be felled at, based on reconstitutions rates and frequency of each species. europaea (Anderss.) and Cyperys rotundus L. II: effect of shade. var. Fungi occurring on this grass include Bipolaris sacchari, B. setariae, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, Colletotrichum caudatum, Glomerella graminicola [Colletotrichum graminicola], Gibberella imperatae, Myriellina imperatae, Puccinia fragosoana, P. imperatae, P. rufipes, Sphacelotheca schweinfurthiana and Tilletiopsis flava. Smither-Kopperl M, 2007. Collins et al. Cameroon is a zoological treasure trove and the diverse habitat hosts all the major species to be found throughout Africa and those that are reserved for the equatorial regions. Rhizomes which develop during the rainy season do not regenerate as well as those formed in the dry season. Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Indian Rhinoceros - The greater one-horned rhinoceros or the Indian rhinoceros … The Wildlife Directorate’s functions include the preparation of wildlife surveys and management plans and the formulation of related rules, the study of animal population dynamics, the creation of hunting areas, game ranches and village hunting areas, and the formulation of strategies for participatory management and their implementation. Tropical Pest Management, 35(1):12-25. Hackel E, 1889. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 23(5):367-380. Bryson CT, Carter R, 1993. The current zoning plan is believed to be inaccurate due to outdated information, poor imagery, and failed consultation with local people and communities. tree nursery stock, NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. I. cylindrica rhizomes exposed at 20 cm depth, Nigeria. The fee fluctuates, but the minimum required is 1000 FCFA per hectare (approximately $2.11 USD). A new species of the genus Heterodera from China (Nematoda: Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Most of its sawn timber is destined for the EU (80%), in particular for Italy and Spain. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 12 pp.. http://www.fws.gov/verobeach/msrppdfs/scrubbuck.pdf. Schmitz DC, Brown TC, 1994. Effect of different control methods of Imperata cylindrica on coconut (Cocos nucifera) yield in low country dry zone of Sri Lanka. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. europea Andersson (1855), Imperata arundinacea var. Plits. HEAR, 2004. As a very decentralized government, subsidiary legislation to regulate the details of activities at a general level were slow to be issued, and the capacity of the Government to promptly issue follow-up legislation has generally been considered an obstacle to the full implementation of legislation in the forestry sector. For preservation of this species of ape, the Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary and the Takamanda National Park have been specifically established in Cameroon. The genera Eragrostis and Panicum, with nine and eight species respectively, are the best represented genera in Itremo. Record of some new alternate host of rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera Olivier from Himachal Pradesh (India). Fungal pathogens of some subtropical and tropical weeds and the possibilities for biological control. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas. These forests provide a source of livelihoods for communities and habitat for over 9,000 plant species, about 900 bird species, and roughly 320 mammals — including the critically … I. cylindrica is a serious weed not only in crops but also in natural areas, causing serious economic and environmental damage. The species is predominately found in the South Eastern regions of Cameroon. I. cylindrica is reported as a weed in 73 countries, and in 35 crops (Holm et al., 1977). Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection (MINEP). 65-76. Regeneration potential of mid-hill Himalayan grasslands of Himachal Pradesh. It is included in the 1993 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (EPPC) List of Most Invasive Plant Species and is considered as a noxious weed designated for eradication or control in Hawaii and a noxious weed in North Carolina. Some pot competition experiments with alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) Nielsen et al. In collaboration with the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Forestry negotiates the terms of benefit sharing. Stoneville, Mississippi:US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Weed Science Laboratory. A. et C. de Candolle. 1. Decree No 2001/718/PM, amended 2006 An Inter-ministerial Environmental Committee to assist the government in formulating and implementing environmental and sustainable development policies was created by this Decree in 2001, amended in 2006. A major point of contension with the 1994 Forest Code is its failure to recognize indigenous peoples’ rights to the lands, territories, and resources they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used and acquired. PhD Disseration, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Whereas some nine-tenths of the working population was engaged in the sector in the 1970s, three decades … Many grasses are cultivated as ornamental plants and for lawns, and several are staple cereal crops. This has resulted in significant overharvesting and an “endangered” status on the IUCN Red List. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Field crops such as upland rice, maize, grain legumes and vegetable crops are very susceptible to competition from this weed. http://in.water.usgs.gov/, Vissoh P V, Kuyper T W, Gbehounou G, Hounkonnou D, Ahanchede A, Röling N G, 2008. Terry PJ, Adjers G, Akobundo IO, Anoka AU, Drilling E, Tjitrosemito S, Utomo M, 1997. Mount Bamboutos 2. Cameroon is an active participant in COMIFAC. [ed. However, this sector is rather small; there are currently only 17,000 hectares of industrial timber plantations in Cameroon. Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. Noltie HJ, 2000. The Cameroon Grasslands is a large cultural area, which is inhabited by a large number of related peoples. CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement among governments whose purpose is to ensure that international trade in wild animal and plant species does not threaten the survival of these species. In: Flora of China Checklist, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. I. cylindrica is capable of capturing material flowing from higher areas in the landscape through erosion, hence, it is possible that it can cause the build-up of vesicular arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal inoculum. PIER, 2003. For larger areas of land, soil cultivation by tractors is more appropriate, best done during the dry season when most of the plant’s biomass is in the rhizomes and when desiccation is most effective. The highest recorded fees have reached 8000 FCFA per hectare ($17 USD). Shilling DG, Bewick TA, Gaffney JF, McDonald SK, Chase CA, Johnson ERRL, 1997. ‘The integration of deep ridging, deep hoe weeding and shading suppressed speargrass more effectively than farmers' practices’ (Vissoh et al., 2008). Inter African Forest Industries Association (IFIA). Order No 0872/MINEF of October 23, 2001 Clarifies forest species classification. If shoots are broken, as in cutting or burning, then rapid shoot development results. The combination of erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes I. cylindrica quite distinct from most other weeds.I. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. The final exploitation contract takes the form of a forest concession granted by decree of the Prime Minister. Kostermans A J G H, Wirjahardja S, Dekker R J, 1987. Chaudhary S A, Akram M, 1987. PhD Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. cylindrica, and the others are recorded as synonyms. Other commercial tree species harvested out of Cameroon’s dense tropical forests include: sapelli (Entandrophragma cylindricum) and sipo (Entandrophragma utile). Paulownia is an effective species for phytoremediation due to high biomass productivity, according to a 2015 study published in PubMed. Studies on the tropical weed Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. The combined area infested by I. cylindrica in Alabama, Florida and Mississippi, USA is estimated to be at least 100,000 hectares (Dickens, 1974; Schmitz and Brown, 1994), and according to Kaczor (2003), citing other authors, it is estimated that between 200,000 and 400,000 hectares in Florida alone are infested by I. cylindrica. Roots are fibrous, emerging from the base of the culm and the nodes on the rhizome. Most timber logs that are exported are then loaded into forty foot containers at various timber parks in Douala and transported to the Douala seaport to be shipped. Journal of Entomological Research, 26:183-184. ; 185 ref. PhD Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA, 90 pp. Anon., 1989. http://www2.tpg.com.au/users/palessi/grass.htm. or Umbellularia spp. It is also able to thrive in different types of soil and can tolerate a wide range of soil pH conditions. This goes directly to the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife (MINFOF). http://www.invasiveplants.net/biologicalcontrol/28CogonGrass.html. The spore density and species richness of VA fungi is found to be high in Imperata grasslands, except at the most degraded sites (Hairiah et al., 2003).Associations Forest Ecology and Management, 254(2):362-370. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781127. PANS, 15(3):407-415. Wilcut JW, Dute RR, Truelove B, Davis DE, 1988. Cameroon acceded to CITES in 1981. Floodplain vegetation in the Nxaraga Lagoon area, Okavango Delta, Botswana. At present, there is no scope for biological control with pathogens or predators.Physical/Mechanical Control The Grasses of Bahia. Germination, rhizome survival and control of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. contains eight species which are found throughout the tropics, extending to warm temperate regions. It remains a consistent seed contaminant. Fungal isolates with potential for the biological control of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica [L.]Beauv.). P lant genera known only from Cameroon include Medusandra ( JSTOR ), and the riverweeds Winklerella (p. 13 of speciesconservation.org pdf file) and Djinga ( Podostemaceae). Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. latifolia Hook. Integrated weed management of direct seeded wet rice fields in South East Asia and Pacific regions, with special reference to Malaysia. Sida, 14:613-615. Bonyongo MC, Bredenkamp GJ, Veenendaal E, 2000. Biology, ecology, and control of Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica(L.) Beauv.]. Order No 0069/MINEP of 08 March 2005 Describes those activities that are subject to carrying out an environmental impact assessment, which include. In Benin, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria, I. cylindrica is most frequently found in transition forest, mountain forest and wet savannah, and is least common in the rain forest and dry savannah (Chikoye et al., 1999). Technical Report No. MSUCARES, 2002. (1812), Imperata koenigii var. Cameroon killi. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) By far one of the most popular grasses, tall fescue is medium to … Final Report. IRRI/NRI (1996) produced a practical guide to the management of I. cylindrica by smallholder farmers in South-East Asia and a companion volume on grassland rehabilitation using agroforestry and assisted natural regeneration has been produced by ICRAF (1999). 7. Manual of the Grasses of the United States., New York, USA: Dover Publications. Timing of cultivation is critical, as if done in the wet season, not only is it difficult but there is insufficient sunshine to kill the exposed rhizomes, and regrowth soon occurs. Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia. Bor NL, 1979. The law further regulates ownership by stating that “the State, local councils, village communities and private individuals may exercise on their forest and aquacultural establishments all the rights that result from ownership subject to restrictions laid down in the regulations governing land tenure and State lands and by this law” (Forest Code, Part I, Section 7). Recently, Cameroon began developing its Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) with the EU, which was ultimately signed in May 2010. Weeds and the C syndrome. EPPO, 2014. Santoso D, Adiningsih S, Mutert E, Fairhurst T, Van Noordwijk M, 1996. Access the 2013 Worldwide Governance Indicator for Cameroon. Countries are ranked (percentile rank model) for each of the six governance indicators on a scale from 0 to 100 where 0 corresponds to lowest rank and 100 corresponds to highest rank (better governance). Access the 2013 Worldwide Governance Indicator for Cameroon. An export surcharge on logs ranging from 500 to 4,000 FCFA (around $8 USD) per cubic meter depending on the species. For important commercial species like ayous (african maple), the surcharge for export is often 4,000 FCFA per m³ Note, these values fluxuate and ​​are passed every six months by the National Assembly on customs. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html. Ecotypic variation of Imperata cylindrica populations in Taiwan: I. Morphological and molecular evidences. Element stewardship abstract for Imperata cylindrica cf var. cylindrica is a prolific producer of seeds which are dispersed by wind over long distances to colonize cleared or previously un-infested land. Successful mechanical control of I. cylindrica necessitates destruction of the capacity to regrow after treatment, usually by physical damage, burial or complete removal, or to inhibit growth of the weed so severely that it ceases to be a problem. 2008. http://www2.tpg.com.au/users/palessi/grass.htm. and Eupatorium odoratum L. Weed Research Project R 2552, 1971-1973. I. cylindrica is a perennial grass which varies in height (30-150 cm). III. Nelson JB, 1993. forestry laws, processing/manufacturing laws, trade laws, tax laws, and transport laws). McKenzie EHC, Jackson GVH, 1986. MINEP is responsible for the development of environmental policies in Cameroon, plus the implementation and evaluation of related government policies. PFEs consist of land formally assigned to forestry operations or protected as wildlife habitats. Severe infestations of I. cylindrica can cause total crop loss in cereals such as upland rice and maize. Dominant grass species include Cymbopogon spp., Hyperhenia filipendula, Echinochloa sp, Pennisetum spp. Agroforestry Systems, 36:151-179. The Forest Code, No. Legality frameworks are available for the following countries: The Illegal Logging Portal, hosted and maintained by Chatham House, provides information on illegal logging and the trade in illegal timber. The Forestry Administration must issue the required documents to communities (waybills, certificates of origin, etc. Paul R, Elmore CD, 1984. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm. They are about 13.5 cm long. Written by: Gail Sessoms. It has been found that spore density and species richness of VA fungi are high in Imperata grasslands, except at the most degraded sites (Hairiah et al., 2003). ANAFOR supports the implementation of the national development program of private and community forest plantations, and handles national and international funding. The strategy is to encourage local processing of logs into sawn timber or timber-based goods. The Global Invasive Species Database contains invasive species information supplied by experts on biological invasion from around the world. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Cameroon ratified the CBD in 1994. Oliver WLR, 1985. Scorpion. DOI:10.1007/BF00142865. (2006) note that attempts to cultivate the weed deliberately as an ornamental in Beijing failed because of its susceptibility to the cold winter conditions. Flora of West Tropical Africa., III London, UK: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ulack R, 2002. Acarologia, 20:556-562. Compendium record. Feuillette B, Marnotte P, Bourgeois Tle, 1997. In: Botanica Macaronesica. Space JC, Falanruw M, 1999. , 1977. 32 pp. Control of cogongrass with herbicides. It appears that I. cylindrica sacrifices its shoots in order to maintain healthy, nutrient-rich rhizomes.I. The ability of I. cylindrica to effectively compete for water and nutrients, spread and persist through the production of seeds and rhizomes that can survive a wide range of environmental conditions, and its allelopathic effects and pyrogenic nature, allow it to exclude native plant species and other desirable plants and dominate large areas of land. Oecologia, 40(3):351-356. The flowers and roots of I. cylindrica have antibacterial, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic properties. Few uses are of economic importance, with the exception of thatching for which I. cylindrica is highly valued in parts of Asia. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, No.146:28-32. Cogongrass in Mobile County, Alabama. pedicellata (Steud.) is a food, feed and fodder crop belonging to the family Leguminosae (= Fabaceae), subfamily Papilionoideae, tribe Vicieae. International Journal of Pest Management. 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